”The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the 1990 Nobel Prize in Physics jointly to Professors Jerome I. Friedman… Henry W. Kendall… and Richard E. Taylor… for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics.”
FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS of the first experimental evidence of the existence of quarks.
Friedman, Kendell, Taylor, “and their coworkers examined the proton (and later on also the neutron) under a microscope – not an ordinary one, but a 2 mile-long electron accelerator built by Wolfgang K.H. Panofsky at Stanford, California. They did not anticipate anything fundamentally new: similar experiments, albeit at lower energies, had found that the proton behaved like a soft gelatinous sphere with many excited states, similar to those of atoms and nuclei. Nevertheless, the Laureates decided to go one step further and study the proton under extreme conditions. They looked for the electron undergoing a large deflection, and where the proton, rather than keeping its identity, seized a lot of the collision energy and broke up into a shower of new particles. This so-called ‘deep inelastic scattering’ had generally been considered to be too rare to be worth investigating. But the experiment showed otherwise: deep inelastic scattering was far more frequent than expected, displaying a totally new facet of proton behavior. This result was at first skeptically received: perhaps the moving electron gave off undetected light. But this year’s Prizewinners had been thorough and their findings were subsequently confirmed by other experiments.
“The interpretation was given primarily by the theorists James D. Bjorken and the late Richard P. Feynman… The electrons ricocheted off hard point-like objects inside the proton. These were soon shown to be identical with the quarks, thus simplifying the physicist’s picture of the world; but the results could not be entirely explained by quarks alone. The Nobel Prize-winning experiment indicated that the proton also contained electrically neutral constituents. These were soon found to be ‘gluons,’ particles glueing the quarks together in protons and other particles.
“A new rung on the ladder of creation had revealed itself and a new epoch in the history of physics had begun.” (Presentation Speech by Professor Cecilia Jarlskog; Nobel Lectures, Physics 1981-1990, Editor-in-Charge Tore Frängsmyr, Editor Gösta Ekspong, World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 1993).
Particle Physics, One Hundred Years of Discoveries: “First evidence for Bjorken scaling behavior” and “Confirmation of Bjorken scaling behavior. Nobel Prize to J.I. Friedman, H.W. Kendall, and R.E. Taylor awarded in 1990 ‘for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics.’”
IN: Physical Review Letters, Vol. 23, No. 16, pp. 930-938. New York: American Physical Society, 1969. Quarto, original wrappers. Institutional stamp on first issue page (not cited article), damp staining to top left corner of front wrapper and along top of rear wrapper; rear wrapper with address label on verso ad remnants of label on recto. Housed in custom box.
Price: $1,750 .