"The aim of the present paper is to present a method of quantization of an ideal gas which, according to our opinion, is as independent of arbitrary assumptions about the statistical of the gas molecules as is possible... Now recently Pauli, following upon an investigation by E.C. Stoner, proposed the rule that if an electron inside an atom has quantum numbers... with definite values, then no other electron can exist in the atom in an orbit which is characterized by the same quantum numbers. In other words, a quantum state (in an external magnetic field) is already completely filled by a single electron. Since this Pauli rule has proved extremely fruitful in the interpretation of spectroscopic phenomena, we want to see whether it may not also be useful in the problem of the quantization of ideal gases. We shall show that this is, indeed, the case, and that the application of Pauli’s rule allows us to present a completely consistent theory of the degeneracy of an ideal gas."
FIRST EDITION, A FINE COPY IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS, of Enrico Fermi's most famous contribution to theoretical physics, the development of what would later become known as "Fermi-Dirac" statistics.
"In 1925, Pauli suggested that atomic electrons obey an 'exclusion principle' that prohibits more than two electrons from occupying the same atomic energy level. A year later, Pauli’s phenomenological rule was formalized by Fermi (1926), and independently by Dirac (1926), as a new type of non-classical statistics that govern ensembles of particles obeying the rule. Particles, such as the electron, governed by these statistics came to be known as 'fermions'" (Bain and Norton, What Should Philosophers of Science Learn From the History of the Electron?). Fermi's paper, published on March 26, 1926, precedes Dirac's August paper on the subject by several months.
"Fermi statistics, which are applicable to electrons, protons, neutrons, and all particles of half-integer spin, have a pervading importance in atomic and nuclear physics and in solid-state theory" (DSB).
Particle Physics, One Hundred Years of Discoveries: "Invention of statistics for ensembles of particles obeying Pauli principle--Fermi Dirac quantum statistics". Pais, Subtle is the Lord, 432.
In Zeitschrift Fur Physik, vol 36, pp. 902-912. Berlin: Julius Springer, 1926. Octavo, original wrappers; custom cloth box. A touch of mild foxing to rear wrapper, last few leaves and text block edges; overall a beautiful copy - extremely rare in such fine, original condition.
Price: $2,900 .